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Примечания

ПРОЛОГ: ЛИЧНЫЙ ПУТЬ

1. On the occasion of the Liberty Medal Ceremony, Philadelphia, July 4, 1994.
2. This paper is available in monograph form from the Asian NGO Coalition, P. O. Box 3107, QCCPO 1103, Quezon City, Philippines; fax (63-2) 921-5122. It has also been published in a number of Other formats and languages, including as a two-part serialization in the Society for International Development journal Development (1993, no. 4 and 1994, no. 4).

1. ОТ НАДЕЖДЫ К КРИЗИСУ

1. Jerry Mander, In the Absence of the Sacred (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1991), p. 26.
2. United Nations Development Programmer (UNDP), Human Development Report 1993 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 12.
3. UNDP, Human Development Report 1994 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), p. 31.
4. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, The State of the World's Refugees (New York: Penguin Books, 1993).
5. Gene Stephens, "The Global Crime Wave," The Futurist, July-August 1994, 22-28.
6. "Out-of-Wedlock Births up since '83, Report Indicates," New York Times, July 20, 1994, pp. A-l, A-16.
7. UNDP, Human Development Report 1994, p. 31.
8. UNDP, Human Development Report 1994, p. 47.
9. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, State of the World's Refugees.
10. Gallup poll, June 2, 1990.
11. Harris poll, January 3, 1994.
12. "The New Deal: What Companies and Employees Owe One Another," Fortune, June 13, 1994, 44-52.
13. Poll result cited by Robert Reich, U. S. secretary of labor, in a presentation to the Democratic Leadership Council, Washington, D. C., November 22, 1994. The figure for those without college degrees is 68 percent.
14. Kettering Foundation, Citizensand Politics: A View from Main Street America (Dayton, Ohio: Kettering Foundation, 1991), pp. III-IV, as quoted in Stephen Craig, The Malevolent Leaders: Population Discontent in America (Boulder, Colo.: Wfestview Press, 1993), p. 83.
15. Seymour Lisped and William Schneider, The Confidence Gap: Business, Labor, and Government in the Public Mind (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987), p. 410; Elizabeth Hann Hastings and Philip К Hastings (eds.), Index to International Public Opinion, 1922-1993 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994).

2.КОНЕЦ ОТКРЫТОЙ ГРАНИЦЫ

1. Royal Society of London and the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, Population Growth, Resource Consumption, and a Sustainable World (London and Washington, D. C.: Authors, 1992), as cited in Lester R. Brown, "A New Era Unfolds," in Brown, et al., State of the World 1993 (New York: W. W. Nerton, 1993), p. 3.
2. Herman E. Daly, "Sustainable Growth: An Impossibility Theorem," Development, no. 3/4 (1990): 45.
3. Originally published in Henry Jarrett (ed.), Environmental Quality in a Growing Economy (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1968), pp. 3-14.
4. See the "guiding principles for the creation of healthy twenty-first century societies" enumerated in Chapter 21.
5. Lance Davis and Robert Huttenback, Mammon and the pursuit of Empire (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986), as cited in Richard Douthwaite, The Growth Illusion (Tulsa, Okla.: Council Oak Books, 1993), p. 46.
6. Davis and Huttenback, as cited in Douthwaite, p. 46.
7. These statistics were compiled by William E. Ress and Mathis Wackernagel, "Ecological Footprints and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: Measuring the Natural Capital Requirements of the Human Economy," in A-M Jannson, M. Hammer, C. Folke, and R. Costanze (eds.), Investing in Natural Capital: The Ecological Economics Approach to Sustainability (Washington, D. C.: Island Press, 1994), p. 380. Note that 1 hectare equals 2.47 acres. For further documentation of the thesis that human activities now exceed many of the natural limits of the ecosystem, see Robert Goodland, Herman E. Daly, and Salah El Serafy (eds.), Population, Technology, and Lifestyle: The Transition to Sustainability (Washington, D. C.: Island Press, 1992), pp. 3-22; Donella H. Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, and Jorgen Randers, Beyond the limits (Post Mills, Vt.: Chelsea Green Publishing, 1992); Gerald O. Barney, Global 2000 Revisited (Arlington, Va.: Millenium Institute, 1993); and Sandra Postel, "Carrying Capacity: Earth's Bottom Line," in Lester R. Brown et al., State of the World 1994 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1994), pp. 3-21.
8. Alan Durning, How Much IsEnough?The Consumer Society and the Future ofthe Earth (New York: W. W. Norton, 1992), pp. 56.
9. Vandana Shiva, "Homeless in the 'Global Village,» Earth Ethics 5, no. 4 (1994): 3.
10. "Aid for Profit: Japanese DDA in Leyte," Kabalikat, September 1990: 8-10.
11. "Pollution and the Poor," The Economist, February 15, 1992, 16-17.
12. Peter M.Vitouseket al., "Human Appropriation ofthe Products of Photosynthesis," Bioscience 24, no. 6 (1986): 368-73.
13. Rees and Wackernagel, p. 382.
14. Rees and Wackernagel, p. 374.
15. Manus van Brakel and Maria Buitenkamp, Sustainable Netherlands: A Perspective for Changing Northern Lifestyles (Amsterdam: Friends ofthe Earth, 1992).
16. Alex Hittle, The Dutch Challenge: A Look at How the United States' Consumption Must Change to Achieve Global Sustainability (Washington, D. C : Friendsofthe Earth, 1994).
17. Van Brakel and Buitenkamp, p. 6.
18. David Pimentel, Rebecca Harman, Matthew Pacenza, Jason Pecarsky, and Marcia Pimentel, "Natural Resources and an Optimal Human Population," Population and Environment 15, no. 5 (1994): 352.
19. Pimentel et al., 364.
20. Pimentel et al., 363.

3. ИЛЛЮЗИЯ РОСТА

1. Mahbub ul Haq, special advisor to the United Nations Development Programmer's annual Human Development Report, in his Barbara Ward Lecture to the 21st World Conference of the Society for International Development, Mexico City, April 1994.
2. International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), The Business Charter for Sustainable Development (Paris: ICC, 1990), as quoted in Paul Ekins, "Sustainability First," in Paul Ekins and Manfred Max-Neef, Real-Life Economics: Understanding \\fealth Creation (London: Rout ledge, 1992), p. 415.
3. Jan Tinbergen and Roefie Hueting, "GNP and Market Prices: Wrong Signals for Sustainable Economic Success That Mask Environmental Destruction," in Robert Goodland, Herman E. Daly, and Salah El Serafy (eds.), Population, Technology, and Lifestyle: The Transition to Sustainability (Washington, D. C.: Island Press, 1992), pp. 52-62.
4. Tinbergen and Hueting, pp. 52-62.
5. Richard Douthwaite, "The Growth Illusion," in Jonathan Greenberg and William Kistler (eds.), Buying America Back (Tulsa, Okla.: Council Oak Books, 1992), pp. 92-96.
6. Paul Ekins (ed.), The living Economy (London: Routledge, 1986), p. 8.
7. Herman E. Daly and John B. Cobb Jr., For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economytoward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future (Boston: Beacon Press, 1989), pp. 401-55.
8. UNDP, Human Development Report, 1991 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).
9. Richard Douthwaite, The Growth Illusion (Tulsa, Okla.: Council Oak Books, 1993), pp. 96-119.
10. Douthwaite, The Growth Illusion, pp. 33-50.
11. Robin Broad and John Cavanagh, Plundering Paradise (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1993), pp. 24-31.
12. Broad and Cavanagh, pp. 24-31.
13. Eduardo A. Morato, "Far More Destructive Non-Events amidst Us," Manila Chronicle, June 18, 1991.
14. Broad and Cavanagh, pp. 61-72.
15. Borato, "Far More Destructive Non-Events amidst Us."
16. See John Young, "Mining the Earth," in Lester R. Brown et al., State of the World, 1992 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1992), p. 111.
17. Edgar Cahn and Jonathan Rowe,Time Dollars (Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press, 1992).
18. Clarence Shubert, "Creating People-Friendly Cities," PCDForum Column no 72, April 5, 1994.
19. Douthwaite, The Growth Illusion, pp. 33-50.
20. Edward McNall Bums, Western Civilizations: Their History and Their Culture, 5th ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1958), pp. 659-60.
21. Douthwaite, The Growth Illusion, pp. 50-56.
22. Bennett Harrison, Lean and Mean: The Changing Landscape of Corporate Power in the Age of Flexibility (New York: Basic Books, 1994), pp. 191-92.
23. Robert Goodland, Herman E. Daly, and Salah El Serafy (eds.), Population, Technology, and Lifestyle: The Transition to Sustainability (Washington, D. C.: Island Press, 1992), p. XV.
24. Alicia Korten, "Cultivating Disaster: Structural Adjustment and Costa Rican Agriculture," Multinational Monitor, July/August 1993, 20-22.
25. Bruce Rich, Mortgaging the Earth: The World Bank, Environmental Impoverishment, and the Crisis of Development (Boston: Beacon Press, 1994), p. 155.
26. Clarence Maloney, "Environmental and Project Displacement of Population in India. Part 1: Development and Deracination," University Field Staff International Report, no. 14 (Indianapolis, Ind.: University Field Staff International, 1990-91), p. 1.
27. Rich, p. 156.
28. Southeast Asia Regional Consultation on People's Participation in Environmentally Sustainable Development, vol. 2, National & Regional Reports (Manila: Asian NGO Coalition, 1991), pp. 1-2.
29. Walter Hook, "Paving over Bangkok: Development Bank-Funded Highway Will Displace Tens of Thousands," Sustainable Transport, no. 2 (September 1993): 7.

4. РОСТ КОРПОРАТИВНОЙ ВЛАСТИ В АМЕРИКЕ

1. Richard L. Crossman and Frank T. Adams, Taking Care of Business: Citizenship and the Charter of Incorporation (Cambridge, Mass.: Charter, Ink, 1993), p. 6.
2. Grossman and Adams, Taking Care of Business.
3. Douglas Dowd, U. S. Capitalist Development since 1776: Of, by, and for Which People? (Armonk, N. Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1993), p. 10.
4. Leo Huberman, We, the People: The Drama of America (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1960), pp. 50-52.
5. Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wfealth of Nations (1776; New York: Modern Library, 1937), p. 123.
6. Grossman and Adams, p. 3.
7. Grossman and Adams, p. 3.
8. Grossman and Adams, pp. 8-9.
9.. Grossman and Adams, pp. 11-12.
10. As quoted in Edwin Merrick Dodd, American Business Corporations until 1860 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1934), p. 130, as cited in Grossman and Adams, p. 13.
11. Harley Wfosserman, America Born & Reborn (New York: Collier Books, 1983), p. 84.
12. As quoted in Wasserman, pp. 89-90.
13. Wasserman, p. 90.
14. As quoted in Wasserman, p. 291.
15. As quoted in Wasserman, pp. 92-93.
16. Wisserman, p. 108.
17. Grossman and Adams, p. 21.
18. Grossman and Adams, p. 21.
19. Grossman and Adams, pp. 18-20.
20. Wasserman, p. 110.
21. Grossman and Adams, pp. 18-20.
22. Paul Hawken, The Ecology of Commerce (New York: Harper Business, 1993), p. 108.
23. Wasserman, p. 110.
24. Melvyn Dubofsky, Industrialism and the American Worker, 1865-1920 (Arlington Heights, 111.: Harlan Davidson, 1975), p. 87.
25. Wasserman, pp. 110-18; Dubofsky, pp. 29-71.
26. Wasserman, pp. 110-18.
27. Wasserman, p. 108.
28. Dubofsky, pp. 72-208.
29. Wasserman, p. 124; Dubofsky, pp. 77-80.
30. Dowd, p. 157.
31. Robert L. Heilbroner, The Warldly Philosophers (New York: Simon and Schuster 1992), pp. 249-50.
32. Wasserman, p. 140.
33. Wasserman, pp. 146-47.
34. Kevin Phillips, The Politics of Rich and Poor (New York: Harper Perennial, 1990) pp. 241-42.
35. Walden Bello, with Shea Cunningham and Bill Rau, Dark Victory: The United States, Structural Adjustment, and Global Poverty (Oakland, Calif.: Institute for Food and Development Policy, 1994), pp. 4-5.
36. Bello, p. 3.
37. Bello, p. 5.
38. Bello, p. 5.
39. The 1978 figure is from Phillips, p. 239. The 1994 figure is from the annual survey of the world's billionaires by Forbes, July 18, 1994, 135.
40. Folbes, July 18, 1994, 135.
41. Bello, pp. 5-6.
42. Bello, pp. 3-4.
43. For further development of the autonomous purpose of corporations, see Jerry Mander, "Corporations as Machines," chap. 7 in In the Absence of the Sacred (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1991).
44. William Greider, Who Will Tell the People? The Betrayal of American Democracy (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992), p. 331.

5. НАСТУПЛЕНИЕ КОРПОРАТИВНЫХ ЛИБЕРТАРИАНЦЕВ

1. "Is Free Trade Passe?" Economic Perspectives 1, no. 2 (1987): 131.
2. Gar Alperovitz, "Building a Living Democracy," Sojourners, July 1990, 16.
3. Michael Pusey, "Reclaiming the Diddle Ground ... from Right 'Economic Rationalism,'" in Stephen King and Peter Lloyd (eds.), Economic Rationalism: Dead End or Way Forward? (New South Wales: Allen & Unwin, 1993), p. 18.
4. Michael Pusey, Economic Rationalism in Canberra: A Nation-Building State Changes Its Mind (Sydney: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
5. Wsbster's New World Dictionary (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1980), s. v. "rationalism."
6. David Boaz and Edward H. Crane, Market Liberalism: A Paradigm for the 21st Century (Washington, D. C.: Cato Institute, 1993), p. 23.
7. Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wfealth of Nations (1776; New York: Modern Library, 1937), pp. 60-61.
8. Smith, p. 674.
9. A. V. Krebs, The Corporate Reapers: The Book of Agribusiness (Washington, D. C.: Essential Books, 1992); and an information sheet titled "America's New 'Centrally Planned' Food Economy," prepared by A. V. Krebs and distributed by Prairie Fire Rural Action, Des Moines, Iowa.
10. Paul Hawken, The Economy of Commerce (New York: Harper Business, 1993). p. 95.
11. Neva Goodwin, "Externalities and Economic Power" (paper presented at the fall ,etreat ofthe Environmental Grantmakers Association, Bretton Woods, N. H., October 13-15, 1994), p. 2.
12. Smith, p. 423. It should be noted that this is the only reference to the famous invisible hand in Smith's nearly thousand-page manuscript.
13. Smith, p. 700.
14. United Nations Center for Transnational Corporations (UNCTC), E/C. 10/ 1993/ 2, March 3, 1993; p. 8; as reported by John Cavanagh in a May 1, 1993, memo.
15. These arguments are developed in much more detail by Herman E. Daly and John B. Cobb Jr., For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future (Boston: Beacon Press, 1989), pp. 209-35.
16. Goodwin, p. 2.
17. James Stanford, "Continental Economic Integration: Modeling the Impact on Labor," Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science 526 (March 1993): 92-100.
18. James Stanford, "Free Trade and the Imaginary Worlds of Economic Modelers," PCD Forum Column no. 45, April 5, 1993.
19. Statistics cited by Richard J. Barnet, "Stateless Corporations: Lords of the Global Economy," The Nation, December 19, 1994, 754.
20. Lawrence Summers, internal Warld Bank memorandum dated December 12, 1991, p. 5. The relevant excerpts from this memo were quoted by The Economist, February 8, 1992, p. 62. Summers, a leading proponent of economic rationalism, responded to widespread public criticism of his argument by claiming that he had inserted in into the infamous memo as an ironic counterpoint rather than an actual proposal.
21. "Pollution and the Poor," The Economist, February 15, 1992, 16-17.
22. This is a regular theme in the World Bank's World Development Report series. See, for example, World Bank, World Development Report 1992: Development and the Environment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), p. 3.
23. This was the central argument of a paper titled "Comments on Thomas W. Pogge's Radical international Inequalities,'" presented by distinguished development economist Paul Streeten at the Panel on Consumption and International Justice of the Conference on Consumption, Global Stewardship and the Good Life, School of Public Affairs, University of Maryland, September 29 - October 2, 1994.

6. УПАДОК ДЕМОКРАТИЧЕСКОГО ПЛЮРАЛИЗМА

1. "Free Trade, up to a Point," Times (London), March 5, 1994; p. 18.
2. Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man (New York: Avon Books,1992).
3. The following points are drawn from Herman E. Daly and John B. Cobb Jr., For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future (Boston: Beacon Press, 1989), pp. 49-60.
4. Based on personal correspondence from Marilyn Mehlmann, Swedish Institute for Social Inventions, March 3, 1994.
5. Kenneth Hermele, "The End ofthe Middle Road: What Happened to the Swedish Model?" Monthly Review, March 1993, 14-24.
6. David Vail, "The Past and Future of Swedish Social Democracy. A Reply to Kennet Hermele," Monthly Review, October 1993, 24-31.
7. Hermele, "The End ofthe Middle Road."
8. Hermele, "The End of the Middle Road."
9. Vail, "The Past and Future of Swedish Social Democracy."
10. Hermele, "The End of the Middle Road."
11. Hermele, "The End of the Middle Road."
12. Vail, "The Past and Future of Swedish Social Democracy."
13. Hermele, "The End of the Middle Road."
14. Hermele, "The End of the Middle Road."
15. Vail, "The Past and Future of Swedish Social Democracy."
16. Larry Diamond, "Beyond Authoritarianism and Totalitarianism: Strategies for Democratization," The Washington Quarterly 12, no. I (Winter 1989): 141-63.
17. William M. Dugger, Corporate Hegemony (New York: Greenwood Press, 1989) pp. 12-15.
18. Dugger, p. 15.
19. Dugger, p. 15.

7. ИЛЛЮЗИИ ЗАОБЛАЧНЫХ МЕЧТАТЕЛЕЙ

1. From "The Cloud Minders," Star Trek, episode 74, February 28, 1969.
2. Graham Hancock, Lords of Poverty (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1989) pp. 38-40.
3. Address by Barber B. Conable to the board of governors of the World Bank and International Finance Corporation, Washington, D. C., September 30, 1986, as quoted in Hancock, p. 38.
4. As reported in Nancy Scheper-Hughes, "The Madness of Hunger," Why,no.14 (Fall 1993):11.
5. Wilter Hook, "Paving over Bangkok," Sustainable Transport, no. 2 (September 1993): 7.
6. Hook, 6.
7. UNDP, Human Development Report 1992 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
8. U. S. data are for families and therefore are not directly comparable with the individual data used by UNDP.
9. Gar Alperovitz, "Building a Living Democracy," Sojourners, July 1990, 13.
10. "Executive Pay: The Party Ain't over Yet," Business Week, April 16, 1993, 56-64.
11. "Executive Pay."
12. "The Forbes Four Hundred," Forbes, October 18, 1993, 110-11.
13. Although net asset values are not directly comparable to gross national product, which is a measure of income, the orders of magnitude are revealing. GNP and population figures are from John W.Wright, The Universal Almanac, 1994 (Kansas City, Mo.: Andrews and McMeel, 1993).
14. "The Forbes Four Hundred," 111.
15. Lawrence Mishel and Jared Bernstein, The State of Working America: 1992-93 (Armonk, N. Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1993), p. 256.
16. Mishel and Bestrein, p. 46; based on data from the House of Representatives Ways and Means Committee, 1991. Figures are in 1992 dollars.
17. James M. Clash, "Reversal of Fortunates," Forbes, October 18, 1993, 105-6.
18. Eric Konigsberg, "No Hassles: The Ultimate Perk of the Ruling Class Is Freedom from Pesky Details," Ute Reader, September/October 1993, 76.
19. James Bennet, "New Ford Chief Hasn't Bought One, Lately," New York Times, October 7, 1993, pp. D-l, D-15.
20. "CEO Disease: Egotism Can Breed Corporate Disaster - and the Malady Is Spreading," Business Week, April 1, 1991,52-60.
21. Konigsberg, 76.
22. Richard J. Bamet and John Cavanagh. Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations a,id the New World Order (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994), pp. 325-29.
23. Bamet and Cavanagh, pp. 325-29. See also Cynthia Enloe, "The Globetrotting Sneaker," Ms., March/April 1995, 10-15.
24. "Eisner Pay Is 68% of Profit," New York Times, April 16, 1994, p. 48.
25. "The World's Wealthiest People," Forbes, July 5, 1993, pp. 66-111; "The Billionaires," Forbes, July 18, 1994, 134-219.
26. Robert B. Reich, The Wbrk of Nations (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991), p. 275.
27. Extensive documentation of this trend within the United States is provided by Reich, pp. 268-81.

8. МЕЧТЫ О ГЛОБАЛЬНЫХ ИМПЕРИЯХ

1. "A Survey of Multinationals: Everybody's Favorite Monsters," The Economist, March 27, 1993, 7.
2. Richard J. Bamet and Ronald E. Muller, Global Reach: The Power of the Multinational Corporation (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974), pp. 13, 15-16, as cited in Howard M. Wachtel, The Money Mandarins: The Making of a Supranational Economic Order (Armonk, N. Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1990), p. 6.
3. Akio Morita, "Toward a New World Economic Order," Atlantic Monthly, June 1993, 88.
4. Morita, 92-93.
5. Morita, 93.
6. Morita, 94-95.
7. "Cosmpcorp: The Importance of Being Stateless," Columbia Journal of World Business 2, no. 6 (November - December 1967), as quoted in Jeff Frieden, "The Trilateral Commission: Economics and Politics in the 1970s," in Holly Sklar (ed.), Trilateralism: The Trilateral Commission and Elite Planning for Wsrld Management (Boston: South End Press, 1980), pp. 63-64.
8. GATT - The Environment and ht Third World, an Overview (Berkeley, Calif.: Environmental News Network, 1992), p. 3, as cited in Paul Hawken, The Ecology of Commerce: A Declaration of Sustainability (New York: Harper Business, 1993), p. 101.
9. Rosabeth Moss Kanter, "Transcending Business Boundaries: 12,000 World Managers View Change," Harvard Business Review, May - June 1991, 161-65.
10. Calculated from global trade and output tables in Lester R. Brown, Hal Kane and Ed Eyres, Vital Signs 1993: The Trends That Are Shaping Our Future (New York: W. W. Norton, 1993).
11. "A Survey of Multinationals," 7.
12. "The Power of the Transnationals," The Ecologist 22, no. 4 (July/August 1992): 159.
13. United Nations, World Investment Report (New York: United Nations, 1993), pp. 19, 22.
14. As quoted in Gerald Epstein, "Mortgaging America," World Policy Journal 8, no. 1 (Winter 1990-91): 29.
15. Rusiness Week, May 14, 1990, 99.
16. Robert R. Reich, "Who Is Us?" Harvard Business Review, January - Febaiary 1990, 54.
17. Andrew Pollack, "G. M. to Make Toyota Cars for Sale in Japan," New York Times, April 16, 1993, p. D-I.
18. "The Stateless Corporation" BusinessWeek, May 14, 1990, 98.
19. "The Stateless Corporation," 90-102.
20. Michael E. McGrathand Richard W. Hoole, "Manufacturing's New Economies0f Scale," Harvard Business Review, May - June 1992, 94-102.
21. "A Survey of Multinationals," 8.
22. Office of Technology Assessment, U. S. Congress, Multinationals and the National Interest: Playing by Different Rules (Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office 1993), pp. 1-4, 10.
23. Kenichi Ohmae, The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Interlinked Economy (London: HarperCollins, 1990), p. XII.
24. "U. S. Companies Use Affiliates Abroad to Skirt Sanctions," New York Times, December 27, 1993, pp. A-1, D-3.
25. Ohmae, pp. X-XI.
26. Ohmae, p. 19.
27. "Exports Will Fly High, but so Will Imports," Fortune, July 25, 1994, 64.
28. Andrew Cohen, "The Downside of'Development,"' The Nation, November 4, 1991, 544-46.
29. This discussion is based on William Greider, Who Will Tell the People? The Betrayal of American Democracy (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992), pp. 378-87; Richard Rothstein, "Continental Drift: NAFTA and Its Aftershocks," The American Prospect, no. 12 (Winter 1993): 68-84; Ross Perot and Pat Choate Save your Job, Save Our Country (New York: Hyperion, 1993), pp. 45-47; and Richard J. Bamet and John Cavanagh, "Creating a Level Playing Field," Technology Review, May/June 1994, 23-29.
30. As interviewed by and cited in Greider, p. 383.
31. "The Boom Belt: There's No Speed Limit on Growth along the South's 1-85," Business Wfeek, September 27, 1993, 98-104.
32. Robert Reich, The Work of Nations (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991), p. 281. s
33. Reported by Robert Reich in a presentation to the Democratic Leadership Conference televised on C-Span, November 29, 1994.

9. СОЗДАНИЕ КОНСЕНСУСА СРЕДИ ЭЛИТЫ

1. Peter Thompson, "Bulderberg and the Wfest," in Holly Sklar (ed.), Trilateralism: The Trilateral Commission and Elite Planning for World Management (Boston: South End Press, 1980), p. 158.
2. Felix Rohatyn, "World Capital: The Need and the Risks," New York Review of Books, July 14, 1994, 48.
3. Leonard Silk and Mark Silk, The American Establishment (New York: Basic Books, 1980), pp. 183-90.
4. The discussion of there events is based on Laurence H. Shoup and Villiam Minter, "Shaping a New World Order: The Council on Foreign Relations' Blueprint for World Hegemony," in Sklar, pp. 135-56.
5. Silk and Silk, pp. 197-98.
6. Shoup and Minter, pp. 135-46.
7. Memorandum E-B32, April 17, 1941, Council on Foreign Relations, Wir-Peace Studies, NUL, as quoted in Shoup and Minter, pp. 145-46.
8. From Memorandum E-B34, July 24, 1941, as quoted in Shoup and Miter, p. 141.
9. Shoup and Minter, p. 141.
10. Bruce Rich, Mortgaging the Earth (Boston: Beacon Press, 1994), pp. 49-56.
11. Thompson, p. 157.
12. Statement by John Pomian (secretary to Joseph Retinger, who was a founder of' pilderberg and its first permanent secretary), as quoted in Thompson, p. 169.
13. Thompson, p. 77.
14. As quoted in Thompson, pp. 177-78.
15. Holly Sklar (ed.), Trilateralism: The Trilateral Commission and Elite Planning for World Management (Boston: South End Press, 1980).
16. From Descriptive materials provided by the Trilateral Commission.
17. Thompson, p. 176.
18. Thompson, p. 177.
19. From an undated information sheet provided by the Trilateral

10. ПОДКУП ДЕМОКРАТИИ

1. As quoted in Justice for Sale: Shortchanging the Public Interest for Private Gain (Washington, D. C.: Alliance for Justice, 1993), p. I.
2. As quoted in Justice for Sale, pp. 10-11.
3. Justice for Sale, pp. 11-12; Mark Megalli and Andy Friedman, Masks of Deception: Corporate Front Groups in America (W&shington, D. C.: Essential Information, 1991), p.153.
4. Megalli and Friedman, p. 153.
5. As quoted in Justice for Sale, p. 12.
6. Justice for Sale.
7. These and other cases are documented in Megalli and Friedman, Masks of Deception.
8. Rosemary Brown, "Unveiling Corporate Front Groups," Co-Op America Quarterly (Winter 1994): 14. For a published directory of business-sponsored front groups, see Carl Deal, The Greenpeace Guide to Anti-Environmental Organizations (Berkeley, Calif.: Odonian Press, 1993); available from Odonian Press, Box 7776, Berkeley, CA 94707, for $5 per copy plus $2 handling per order.
9. William Greider, Who Will Tell the People? The Betrayal of American Democracy (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992), p. 48.
10. Justice for Sale, p. 3.
11. Greider, Who Will Tell the People?
12. From a descriptive brochure provided by the Business Roundtable.
13. The ratio is based on the 1992 average annual compensation of $3.84 million for the CEOs of major U. S. corporations as reported by Business Week, April 16, 1993. Since the Roundtable members are the CEOs of the very largest U. S. corporations, we can presume that their average compensation is higher than the average reported by Business Wfeek.
14. Sarah Anderson, John Cavanagh, and Sandra Gross, NAFTA's Corporate Cadre: An Analysis of the USA*NAFTA State Captains (Washington, D. C.: Institute for Policy Studies, 1993); available from IPS, 1601 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20009.
15. Greider, p. 35.
16. John Stauber, "Countering the Flack Attack," Co-op America Quarterly (Winter1994): 18.
17. Stauber, p. 18.
18. Greider, pp. 253-54.
19. Greider, p. 270.
20. Pat Choate, "Political Advantage: Japan's Campaign for America," Harvard Business Review, September - October 1990, 87-103; "Is Japan 'Buying' U. S. Politics?" Harvard Business Review, November - December, 1990, 184-98.

11. ПРЕВРАЩЕНИЕ МИРА В РЫНОК

1. William Leach, Land of Desure: Merchants, Power, and the Riseofa New American Culture (New York: Pantheon Books, I993), p. XIII.
2. Richard J. Bamet and John Cavanagh, "The Sound of Money," Sojourners, January 1994, 12.
3. Paul Hawken, The Ecology of Commerce: A Declaration of Sustainability (New York, Harper Business, 1993), p. 132.
4. Duance Elgin, Voluntary Simplicity (New York: William Morrow, 1993), pp. 50-52
5. Elgin, pp. 50-52.
6. Leach, p. XV.
7. Leach, pp. 11-12.
8. The statistics and analysis of television are from Jerry Mander, In the Absence of the Sacred: The Failure of Technology & the Survival of the Indian Nations (San Francisco Calif.: Sierra Club Books, 1991), pp. 75-82.
9. Mander, pp. 97-98.
10. As cited in Richard J. Bamet and John Cavanagh, Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations and the New World Order (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994), pp. 171-72.
11. United Nations, Report on the World Social Situation 1993 (New York: United Nations, 1993), p. 48.
12. Alan Thein Duming, "Can't Live without It," World-Watch 6, no. 3 (May -June 1993): 13.
13. Akio Morita, "Toward a New World Economic Order," Atlantic Monthly, June 1993.
14. As quoted in Bamett and Cavanagh, "The Sound of Money," 14.
15. Bamet and Cavanagh, "The Sound of Money," 14.
16. Sarah Ferguson, "The Comfort of Reign Sad: Kurt Cobain and the Politics of Damage," Utne Reader, July/August 1994, 62.
17. TV Nation, produced by Michael Moore, NBC television, August 2, 1994.
18. Except as otherwise referenced, information on corporate advertising in the classroom is from Alex Moiiar, "Corporations in the Classroom," Co-op America Quarterly (Winter 1994): 19-20.
19. As quoted in Robert Pear, "Senator, Promoting Student Nutrition, Battles Coca- Cola," New York Times, April 26, 1994, p. A-20.
20. "А, В, C, D, Economics," New York Times, May 26, 1994, p. A-23.
21. Donella Meadows, "Corporate-Run Schools Are a Threat to Our Way of Life," Valley News, October 3, 1992, p. 22; Monar, p. 20.
22. As quoted in Monar, p. 20.
23. Hawken, p. 129.
24. "Empires of the 21st Century?" BusinessWeek, February21, 1994, 19. Chapter 1 2.

12. УСМИРЕНИЕ БЕДНЫХ

1. To eleven African heads of state, Libreville, Gabon, May 27, 1993.
2. The ad was placed by the Philippine government in 1975, as quoted in Elizabeth M. Krahmerand Donella H. Meadows, "Money Flows" (draft paper, March 29, I994), p. 19.
3. Robin Broad, Uniqual Alliance l979-l986:TheWarld Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the Philippines (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, I988), p. 21.
4. Bruce Rich, "The Cuckoo in the Nest: Fifty Years of Political Meddling by the World Bank, "The Ecologist 24, no. I (January/February 1994): 9.
5. Rich, 9.
6. Rich, 9.
7. Broad, pp. 6-7.
8. Broad, pp. 6-7.
9. Broad, pp. 6-7.
10. Broad, pp. 26-27.
11. Rich, 9-10.
12. Rich, 10.
13. Broad, p. 27.
14. As quoted in Robert W. Oliver, International Economic Cooperation and the World Bank (London: Macmillan Press, 1977), p. 160, and cited in Bruce Rich, Mortgaging the Earth: The World Bank, Environmental Impoverishment, and the Crisis of Development (Boston: Beacon Press, 1994), p. 59.
15. World Debt Tables 1992093: External Finance for Developing Countries (Washington, D. C.: World Bank, 1992), p. 212.
16. Frances Stewart, "The Many Faces of Adjustment,"World Development 19, no. 12 (December 1991): 1851.
17. World Debt Tables 1992-93, p. 208.
18. Jonathan Cahn, "Challenging the New Imperial Authority: The World Bank and the Democratization of Development," Harvard Human Rights Journal 6 (1993): 160.
19. Clay Chandler, "The Growing Urge to Break the Bank," Washington Post, June
19, 1994, pp. H-l, H-7.
20. Rich, Mortgaging the Earth, pp. 77.
21. Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, Participation ofthe United States in the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 79th Cong., 1st sess., 1945, S. Rpt. 452, pt. 2, "Minority Views," p. 9, as quoted in Rich, Mortgaging the Earth, p. 62.
22. Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, p. 9, as quoted in Rich, Mortgaging the Earth, pp. 61-62.
23. David C. Korten, Getting to the 21st Century: Voluntary Action and the Global Agenda (West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press, 1990).
24. Reported by Pratap Chatterjee, "World Bank Failures Soar to 37.5% of Completed Projects in 1991," Third World Economics, December 16-31, 1992, p. 2.
25. Reported by Michael Cemea, "Farmer Organizations and Institution Building for Sustainable Development," Regional Development Dialogue 8, no. 2 (Summer 1987): 1-19.

13. ГАРАНТИРОВАНИЕ ПРАВ КОРПОРАЦИЙ

1. Farewell lecture to the World Bank, January 1994.
2. William M. Dugger, Corporate Hegemony (New York: Greenwood Press, 1989), pp. IX, XIII.
3. Paul Hawken, The Ecology of Commerce: A Declaration of Sustainability (New York: Harper Business, 1993), pp. 99-100.
4. Information on the trade advisory committees is from Tom Hilliard, Trade Advisory Committees: Privileged Access for Polluters (Washington, D.C.: Public Citizen's Congress Watch, 1991).
5. U. S. Department of Commerce and Office o f t h e U. S. Trade Representative, Procedures and Rules forthe Industry Advisory Committees for Trade Policy Matters, (n. d.), p. 3, as cited in Hilliard, p. 9.
6. Hilliard, p. 7.
7. "Government Seeks Advice from Industry on U. S. Trade Policy," Business America, January 16, 1989, 9, as cited in Hilliard, p. 7.
8. Hilliard, Trade Advisory Committees.
9. As quoted in Mark Ritchie, "GATT, Agriculture and the Environment: The US Double Zero Plan," The Ecologist 20, no. 6 (November/December 1990): 217.
10. As cited in "Power: The Central Issue," The Ecologist 22, no. 4 (July/August 1992): 159.
11. Cited in Ritchie, p. 216.
12. From a study by Tim Lang for the United Kingdom National Food Alliance, as reported in Tim Lang and Colin Hines, The New Protectionism: Protecting the Future against Free Trade (New York: New Press, 1993), pp. 100-103. |
13. In an April 24, 1993, interview with New Scientist magazi$e. cited in Natalie Avery, "How Companies Influence Global Food Standards," news release issued by Third World Network Features, 87 Cantonment Road, Penang, Malaysia, January 1994, p. 7.
14. Hope Shand, "Patenting the Planet," Multinational Monitor, June 1994, 9-13.
15. Shand, 9-13.
16. As quoted in Vkndana Shiva, Monocultures ofthe Mind: Perspectives on Biodiversity and Biotechnology (London: Zed Press, 1993), p. 122.
17. Shiva, p. 122.
18. The Ecologist, Whose Common Future? Reclaiming the Commons (Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1993), pp. 55-56.

14. ИГРА В ДЕНЬГИ

1. "Hot Money," Business Wfeek, March 20, 1995, 46.
2. The number of participants is an estimate noted by Representative Henry B. Gonzalez, of the House Banking Committee of the U. S. Congress, at a hearing on the derivatives market; cited in Thomas L. Friedman, "International Investors Bet Everything on Anything," New York Times, April 17, 1994, sec. 4, p. 1.
3. Diana B. Henriques, "Questions of Conflict Sting Mutual Funds," New York Times, August 7, 1994, p. I.
4. "Another Year in 'Bank Heaven'?" Business Week, January 10, 1994, 103.
5. Pension fund figures are from Randy Barber and Teresa Ghilarducci, "Pension Funds, Capital Markets, and the Economic Future," in Gary A. Dymski, Gerald Epstein, and Robert Pollin (eds.), Transforming the U. S. Financial System: Equity and Efficiency for the 21st Century (Armonk, N. Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1993), p. 288.
6. On an average day in July 1993, $1,087 trillion in dollar-based transactions, most of the currency trades, took place on the New York Clearing House Interbank Payments System alone. Jay Mathews, "Putting Currency Trading on Trial," Wishington Post, August 22, 1993, p. H-1.
7. Joel Kurtzman, The Death of Money (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993), pp. 64, 149.
8. For more detailed nontechnical discussions of the financial economy, see Kurtzman, The Death of Money; Howard M. Wachtel, The Money Mandarins: The Making of a Supranational Economic Order (Armonk, N. Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1990); and Roy C. Smith, The Money Wars: The Rise and Fall of the Great Buyout Boom of the 1980s (Plume, N. Y.: Truman Talley Books, 1990).
9. The actual rate varies, depending on such things as the total assets of the bank, but it averages a little under 10 percent.
10. Report of the Presidential Commission on Market Mechanisms (Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1988), p. 1-2, as cited in Wachtel, p. 251.
11. Kurtzman, p. 98.
12. Kurtzman. p. 161.

15. ФИНАНСЫ - ХИЩНИКИ

1. The comment was made about a period of currency stability in March I987, as quoted in Hobart Rowen, "Wielding Jawbone to Protect the Dollar," Washington Post, March 15, 1987, p. H-l, and cited in Howard M. Wachtel, The Money Mandarins: The Making of a Supranational Economic Order (Armonk, N. Y.: M. E. Sharpe, I990), p. 269.
2. Joel Kurtzman, The Death of Money (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993), p. I28.
3. Felix Rohatyn, "World Capital: The Need and the Risks," New York Review of Books, July 14, 1994, 53.
4. "A Survey of Multinationals: Everybody's Favourite Monsters," The Economist, March 27, 1993, 6.
5. Personal communication with J. T. Ross Jackson, president, Gaiacorp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
6. Carol J. Loomis, "Untangling the Derivatives Mess," Fortune, March 20, 1995, 50.
7. "Survey: Frontiers of Finance: On the Edge," The Economist, October 9, 1993, 4.
8. Saul Hansell, "A Primer on Hedge Funds: Hush-Hush and for the Rich," New York Times, April 13, 1994, pp. A-l, D-15.
9. "Excerpts from Soros Testimony," New York Times, April 14, 1994, p. D-6.
10. Allen R. Myerson, "When Soros Speaks, Wforld Markets Listen," New York Times, June 10, 1993, p. D-l.
11. "Big Winner from Plunge in Sterling," New York Times, October 27, 1992, p. D-9.
12. Elizabeth M. Krahmerand Donella H. Meadows, "Money Flows" (prepared forthe annual meeting ofthe Environmental Grantmakers Association, March 24, 1994), p. 48.
13. Jay Mathews, "Putting Currency Trading on Trial," Washington Post, August 22, 1993, pp. H-l, H-4.
14. Felix Rohatyn, "World Capital: The Need and the Risks," New York Review of Books, July 14, 1994,51-52.
15. Saul Hansell, "A Bad Bet for P. & G„" New York Times, April 14, 1994, p. D-6.
16. Rohatyn, 52.
17. Susan Antilla, "A Concealed Danger for Funds," New York Times, April 17, 1994, p. 15.
18. "Today, Orange County: The Muni Mess on Wall Street: How Bad? BusinessWeek,
December 19, 1994, 28-30.
19. Saul Ansell, "For Rogue Traders, Yet Another Victim," New York Times, February 28, 1995, pp. 1995, pp. Dl, D8; "The Lesson from Barings' Straits," BusinessWeek, March 13, 1995, 30-32; Richard W. Stevenson, "Young Trader's $29 Billion Bet Brings Down a Vfenerable Firm," New York Times, February 28, 1995, pp. A-1, D-9.
20. Sheryl WuDunn, "Tokyo Stocks Plunge on British Firm's Collapse," New York Times, February 27, 1955, p. D-l.
21. As cited in Joel Kurtzman, The Death of Money (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993), pp. 89-91.
22. Based on an interview with Christopher Whalen, chief financial officer for Legal
Research International, by Bussell Mikhiber ofthe Corporate Crime Reporter, January 19, 1995, distributed via Internet.
23. "The World's Wfealthiest People," Forbes, July 5, 1993; 66: "The Billionaires," Forbes, July 18, 1994, 194-195.
24. "One Year Later: NAFTA Disaster!" Information package prepared and distributed by Public Citizen's Trade Program, Public Citizen, Washington, D. C., March 1995, p. I.
25. "Austerity and Rates of 92% Fail to Perk Up the Peso," New York Times, March 16 1995, p. D-8.
26. Anthony DePIama, "Mexicans Ask How Far Social Fabric Can Stretch," New York Times, March 12, 1995, p. A-l.
27. Allen R. Nyerson, "Peso's Plunge May Cost Thousands of U. S. Jobs," New York Times, January 30, 1995, p. D-4.
28. Anthony DePIama, "Crisis in Mexico Deepens Damage in Latin Markets," New York Times, January 11, 1995, pp. A-1, D-2.
29. Ralph Nader, testimony on the bailout of the Mexican government before the Senate Banking Committee, U. S. Senate, Washington, D. C., March 9, 1995, p. 4; David E. Sanger, "Dollar Dips as the Peso Falls Again," New York Times, March 10, 1995, p. D-l.
30. Harvey D. Shapiro, "After NAFTA: Facing the New Global Economy," Hemispheres, March 1995, 74-79.
31. Paul Craig Roberts, "How Clinton Is Bashing the Buck," BusinessWeek, August 8, 1994, 14.
32. Mathews, p. H-4.
33. Thomas A. Russo, "Let Will St. Handle Derivatives Rules," New York Times, May
15, 1994, sec. 3, p. 13.
34. As quoted in Mathews, p. H-4.
35. As quoted in Sylvia Nasar, "Jett's Supervisor at Kidder Breaks Silence," New York Times, June 26, 1994, pp. Dl, D-l4.
36. Sylvia Nasar, "Kidder Scandal Tied to Failure of Supervision," New York Times, August 5, 1994, pp. A-l, D-3.
37. As quoted in Thomas J. Lueck, "Incentives of $31 Million Keep Kidder Peabody in New York," New York Times, October 30, 1993, pp. 23-24.

16. КОРПОРАТИВНЫЙ КАННИБАЛИЗМ

1. William M. Dugger, Corporate Hegemony (New York: Greenwood Press, 1989), p. X.
2. The meaning of the phrase "creating value" is commonly distorted by corporate libertarians to refer to anything that inflates a price or extracts a profit. I use the term only reference to adding to the real value of the world's stock of goods, services, and productive assets.
3. Joel Kurtzman, The Death of Money (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993), p. 164.
4. Data compiled by Donald L. Bartlett and James B. Steele, "America: What Went Wrong? Part 8: The Disappearing Pensions," Philadelphia Inquirer, October 27, 1991, p. 1-A, as cited in Jonathan Greenberg, "The Hidden Costs of Corporate Takeovers," in Jonathan Greenberg and William Kistler (eds.), Buying America Back (Tulsa, Okla.: Council Oak Books, 1992), p. 153.
5. As quoted in "The Power of the Transnational," The Ecologist 22, no. 4 (July/ August 1992): 159.
6. Ned Daly, "Ravaging the Redwoods: Charles Hurwitz, Michael Milken and the Cost of Greed," Multinational Monitor, September 1994, 12.
7. John Skow, "Redwoods: The Last Stand," Time, June 6, 1994, 59.
8. Skow, 59.
9. Daly, 13.
10. As quoted in Susan Faludi, "The Reckoning: Safeway LBO Yields Vast Profits But Exacts a Heavy Human Toll," Wall Street Journal. May 16, 1990, p IA, and cited in Greenburg, p. 159.
11. Gretchen Morgenson, "The Buyout That Saved Safeway," Forbes, November 12, 1990, 88, as cited in Greenberg, p. 155.
12. Greenberg, p. 155.
13. Data compiled by Donald L. Bartlett and James B. Steele, "America: What Wfent Wrong? Part 3: Shifting Taxes from Them to You," Philadelphia Inquirer, October 22, 1991, p. 1-A, as cited in Greenberg, p. 152.
14. Greenberg, p. 151.
15. Greenberg, p. 159.
16. Based on Joseph Pereira, "Split Personality," as reprinted by Utne Reader, September/October 1993, 63-66, from the Wall Street Journal.
17. As quoted in Pereira, 64.
18. As cited in Ross Perot and Pat Choate, Save Your Job, Save Our Country: Why NAFTA Must Be Stopped-Now! (New York: Hyperion, 1993), pp. 52-53.
19. Perot and Choate, pp. 52-53.

17. УПРАВЛЯЕМАЯ КОНКУРЕНЦИЯ

1. Bennett Harrison, Lean and Mean: The Changing Landscape of Corporate Power in the Age of Flexibility (New York: Basic Books, 1993), p. 220.
2. "Let the Good Times Roll - and a Few More Heads," Business Week, January 31, 1994, 28-29.
3. "The Rise and Rise of America's Small Firms," The Economist, January 21, 1989, 73-74, as quoted in Harrison, p. 13.
4. Based on Harrison, pp. 9-11.
5. "Let the Good Times Roll," 28-29.
6. Harrison, p. 18.
7. Paul Hawken, The Ecology of Commerce (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), p. 8.
8. "Executive Pay: The Party Ain't Over Yet," Business Week, April 26, 1993, 56-62; "That -Popping Executive Pay: Is Anybody Worth This Much?" BusinessWeek, April 25, 1994, 52-58.
9. Brian O'Reilly, "The New Deal: What Companies and Employees Owe One Another," Fortune, June 13, 1994, 45.
10. John Naisbitt, Global Paradox (New York: William Morrow, 1994), p. 14.
11. "Learning to Survive in the '90s," Business Week, January 10, 1994, 95.
12. "Channelling Big Stores' Awesome Clout," Business Week, December 21, 1992, 98.
13. Donella Meadows, "Wal-Mart Should Come on Our Terms, Not at Our Expense," Valley News, June 12, 1993, p. 26.
14. "Clout! More and More, Retail Giants Rule the Marketplace," Business Week, December 21, 1992, 66-73; "Brawls in Toyland," Business Week, December 21, 1992, 36-37.
15. "Clout!", 73.
16. This compares 1991 GN P data for countries against total sales of the world's largest corporations for the same year. GNPdata are from The Universal Almanac, 1994 (Kansas City, Mo.: Andrews and McMeel, 1993) supplemented by The Economist, Book of Vital World Statistics (New York: Random House, 1990) . Aggregate sales data are from tables in Hoover's Handbook of World Business 1993 (Austin, Tex.: Reference Press, 1993) for the world's 500 largest industrial corporations, the world's 50 largest utilities, the world's 50 largest retailing companies, and the world's 50 largest diversified service companies. Many sources indicate that only forty of the hundred largest economies are corporations. Thjs figure is based on the Fortune list ofthe world's hundred largest "industrial" corporations,; which excludes nonindustrial corporations.
17. Hawken, p. 92.
18. Hawken, p. 92.
19. "A Servey of Multinationals: Everybody's Favourite Monsters," The Economist, March 27, 1993 (special supplement), 6.
20. Asset figures for commercial banks and financial companies are from Hoover's Handbook of World Business, pp. 68, 72.
21. One of the exceptions is Roger Terry, Putting the American Dream Back Together (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, forthcoming).
22. Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wfealth of Nations (1776; New York: Modern Library, 1937), p. 128.
23. "The Age of Consolidation," Business Week, October 14, 1991, 86-94. "Making the Perfect Connection," WordPerfect Report, Summer/Fall 1994, p. 2.
24. These estimates are from "A Survey of Multinationals," 17.
25. A. V. Krebs, The Corporate Reapers: The Book of Agribusiness (Wishington, D. C.: Essential Books, 1992); A. V. Krebs, "America's New 'Centrally Planned' Food Economy" (information sheet distributed by Prairie Fire Rural Action, Des Moines, Iowa).
26. Joan Dye Gussow, "A Nutrition Policy... That Leads to a Food Policy... That Leads to an Agricultural Policy," WHY Magazine, Summer 1993, 25.
27. Krebs, The Corporate Reapers, p. 102.
28. Krebs, The Corporate Reapers, pp. 372-82.
29. "The Virtual Corporation," BusinessWeek, February 8, 1993, 100.
30. "The Virtual Corporation," 100.
31. "The Partners," BusinessWeek, February 10, 1992, 102-7.
32. "The Partners," 102-7.
33. "A Survey of Multinationals," 14.
34. The Economist, February 6, 1993, 69.

18. БЕГ К ПРОПАСТИ

1. "What's Wrong?" Business Week, August 2, 1993, 59.
2. Jeremy Brecher, "Global Village or Global Pillage?" The Nation, December 6, 1993, 685-88.
3. Laurie Udesky, "Sweatshops behind the Labels: The 'Social Responcibility' Gap," The Nation, May 16, 1994, 666-68.
4. Ms. Diaz's testimony before a hearing of the Subcommittee on Labor-Management Relations, Committee on Education and Labor, U. S. House of Representatives, Wilkes- Barre, Pa., June 7, 1994, as cited in an ad placed in the New York Times, June 19, 1994,p. A-23, by the International Ladies Garment Workers Union.
5. Bill Keller, "The Revolution Won, Workers Are Still Unhappy," New York Times, July 23, 1994, p. 2.
6. Bill Keller, "In Mandela's South Africa, Foreign InvestorsAre Few," New York Times, August 3, 1994, p. A-l.
7. "Damping Labor's Fires," Business Week, August 1, 1994, 40-41.
8. "Damping Labor's Fires," 40-41.
9. "The Wild, Wild East," BusinessWeek, December28, 1992, 50-51.
10. Robert A. Senser, "Outlawing the Crime of Child Slavery," Freedom Review,
November - December 1993, 29-35.
11. Senser, 29-35.
12. Senser, 29-35.
13. Udesky, 665-68.
14. Robert Levering and Milton Moskowitz, The 100 Best Companies to Work for in America, rev. Ed. (New York: Penguin Books, 1994), p. 500.
15. "Managing by Values: Is Levi Strauss' Approach Visionary - or Flaky?" Business Week, August I, 1994, 46-52.
16. Levering and Moskowitz, pp. 501-2.
17. "Slash and Earn on the Continent," BusinessWeek, May 2, 1994, 45-46.
18. "Europe's Economic Agony," BusinessWeek, February 15, 1993, 49.
19. "Rage in the Streets," Business Week, April 11, 1994, 46.
20. "Doleful," The Economist, October 9, 1993, 17.
21. "Doleful," 17.
22. "Doleful," 17.
23. "Europe's Economic Agony," 48-49.
24. "Land of the Rising Jobless," Business Week, January 11, 1993, 47.
25. Michael H. Armacost, "Japan Goes to Business School, New York Times, July 28, 1994, p. A-23.
26. "A Bargain Basement Called Japan," Business Week, June 27, 1994, 42.
27. David Sanger, "New Japan Access for Wall Street," New York Times, January 11, 1995, pp. A-l, D-5.
28. "Wal-Mart Jitters Reach Canada's Stores," BusinessWeek, January 31, 1994, 38.
29. "Invasion of the Retail Snatchers," Business Wfeek, May 9, 1994, 72.
30. "NAFTA: A Green Light for Red Tape," Business Wfeek, July 25, 1994, 48.

19. ЗАКАТ ЭРЫ ДИЛЕТАНСТВА

1. Jeremy Rifkin, The End of Work (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1995), p. XIV.
2. Richard Douthwaite, The Growth Illusion (Tulsa, Okla.: Council Oak Publishing, 1993), p. 24.
3. William M. Dugger, Corporate Hegemony (New York: Greenwood Press, 1989),p. 13.
4. Brian O'Reilly, "The New Deal: What Companies and Employees Owe One Another," Fortune, June 13, 1994, 50.
5. John Burgess, "Debate on Executive Pay Moves across the Atlantic," International Herald Tribune, October 24, 1991, Business/Finance section, p. 1.
6. Derek Bok, The Cost of Talent: How Executives and Professionals Are Paid and How It Affects America (New York: Free Press, 1993), pp. 108-14.
7. Lee Smith, "Burned-Out Bosses," Fortune, July 25, 1994, 44-46.
8. Smith, 44-46.
9. Sarah Lyall, "Publishing Chief Is Out at Viacom," New York Times, June 15, 1994, pp. D-l, D-16.
10. Alison Leigh Cowan and John Holusha, "Eastman Kodak Chief Is Ousted by Directors," New York Times, August 7, 1993, p. 49.
11. "Getting Rid of the Boss," The Economist, February 6, 1993, 13.
12. The contingency Wark Force," Fortune, January 24, 1994, 31.
13. "Planning a Career in a World Without Managers," Fortune, March 20, 1995,72-80.
14. Jaclyn Fierman, "The Perilous New World of Fair Pay," Fortune, June 13, 1994, 64.
15. Lawrence Mishel and Jared Bernstein, The State of Working America 1992-93 (Washington, D. С.: M. E. Sharpe, 1993), pp. 131-34.
16. Jason De Parle, "Sharp Increase along the Borders of Poverty," New York Times, March 31, 1994, p. A-1.
17. As summarized in "Lifestyles of the Poor and Working," Utne Reader. March/ April 1993, 19-20.
18. "Dowanward Mobility," BusinessWeek, March 23, 1992, 57-58.
19. "Bellboys with B. A.," Time, November 22, 1993, 36.
20. George J. Church, "Jobs in an Age of Insecurity," Time, November 22, 1993, 36.
21. "Lifestyles of the Poor and Working," Utne Reader, March/April 1993, 19-20.
22. The Millers' story is reported by Dirk Johnson, "Family Struggles to Make Do after Fall from Middle Class," New York Times, March II, 1994, pp. A-l, A-14.

20. ЛИШНИЕ ЛЮДИ

1. As quoted in "Development as Enclosure: The Establishment of a Global Economy," The Ecologist 22, no. 4 (1992): 131 -47.
2. Quouted material is from Helena Norberg-Hodge, "The Psychological Road to 'Development,'" DCDForum Column no. 62, October 8, 1993. A more detailed account may be found in Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1991). An Excellent video documenting life in Ladakh before and after development is available from the International Society for Ecology and Culture (ISEC), 12 Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol BS8 4ES, UK; or P. O. Box 9475, Berkeley, CA 94709, USA.
3. For a more detailed account of the history of the land enclosure process, see the special issue of The Ecologist 22, no. 4 (July/August 1992) on the theme "Whose Common Future?"
4. "Development as Enclosure: The Establishment of a Global Economy," The Ecologist 22, no. 4 (July/August 1992): 134.
5. "Development as Enclosure," 135.
6. "Development as Enclosure," 135.
7. "Development as Enclosure," 135, 137.
8. For a thoroughly documented account of clandestine U. S. political and military interventions throughout the South, see Jonathan Kwitny, Endless Enemies: The Making of an Unfriendly World (New York: Congdon & Weed, 1984).
9. Robert D. Kaplan, "The Coming Anarcy," Atlantic Monthly, February 1994, 46.
10. Kaplan, 48.
11. Martin van Creveld, The Transformation of War, as quoted in Kaplan, 74.
12. United Nations Higs Commissioner for Refugees, The State of the World's Refugees (New York: Penguin Books, 1993).
13. "Two Million Refugees," New York Times, July 20, 1994, p. A-18.
14. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, foreword, p. III.
15. Kaplan, 72.

21. ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ РЕВОЛЮЦИЯ

1. Willis Harman, Global Mind Change: The Promise ofthe Last Years of the Twentieth Century (Indianapolis, Ind.: Knowledge Systems, 1988).
2. Wangari Maathai, "All We Need Is Will," in Can the Environment Be Saved without a Radical New Approach to World Development? (Geneva: CONGO Planning Committee for UNCED, 1992), p. 27.
3. Mary E. Clark, "The Backward Ones," PCDForum Column no. 51, June 25, 1993.
4. The following discussion draws on Harman, pp. 34-35; Duane Elgin, Awakening garth: Exploring the Evolution of Human Culture and Consciousness (New York: William Morrow, 1993), pp. 15-16; and personal communications with William Ellis.
5. Edward McNall Burns, VNfestern Civilizations: Their History and Their Culture, 5th ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1958), p. 520.
6. Harman, p. 12.
7. Burns, p. 521.
8. Jacob Needleman, Money and the Meaning of Life (New York: Doubleday, 1991), pp. 40-41.
9. Joe Dominguez and Vicki Robin, Your Money or Your Life: Transforming Your Relationships with Money and Achieving Financial Independence (New York: Viking, 1992), p. 54.
10. Dominguez and Robin, p. 54.
11. FritjofCapra. The Tao of Physics (New York: Bantam Books, 1976); GaryZukav, The Dancing Wu Li Masters: An Overview ofthe New Physics (New York: Bantam Books, 1979). Fritjof Capra, The Turning Point: Science, Society, and the Rising Culture (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982), and Harman, Global Mind Change, deal specifically with the implications for society.
12. This thesis is developed in George T. Lock Land, Grow or Die: The Unifying Principle of Transformation (New York: Dell, 1973).
13. Arnold Toynbee, A Study of History, abridgement of vols. 1-6 by D. D. Somerwell (New York: Oxford University Press, 1947), p. 555.
14. Herman Daly, "Toward Some Operational Principles of Sustainable Development," Ecological Economics 2 (1990): 1-6.
15. This scheme is based on James Robertson, Future Wealth: A New Economics for the 21st Century (London: Cassell Publishers Limited, 1989).

22. ХОРОШАЯ ЖИЗНЬ

1. Eknath Easwaran, The Compasionate Universe: The Power of the Individual to Heal the Environment (Tomales, Calif.: Nilgiri Press, 1989), pp. 73-74.
2. Mary E. Clark, "The Backward Ones," PCDForum Column no. 51, June 25, 1993.
3. Robert D. Putnam, "The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Affairs," The American Prospect 13 (Spring 1993): 2.
4. Putnam, 2.
5. Alan Durning, How Much Is Enough: The Consumer Society and the Future of the Earth (New York: W. W. Norton, 1992). Durning's terms for the three socioecological classes are consumers, middle income, and poor.
6. Michael Renner, "Assessing the Military's War on the Environment," in Lester R. Brown etal., State ofthe World 1991 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1991), p. 139.
7. David Engwicht, Reclaiming Our Cities and Towns (Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1993), p. 17.
8. Engwicht, pp. 48-51.
9. Engwicht, p. 45.
10. William E. Rees and Mark Roseland, "From Urban Sprawl to Sustainable Human Communities," PCDForum no. 54, June 25, 1993.
11. Statistics are reported by Marcia D. Lowe, "Reinventing Transport," in Lester R. Brown et al., State ofthe W>rld 1994 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1994), pp. 82-84, from a study by the U. S. Federal Highway Commission. For Further discussion, see Engwicht, pp. 138-44.
12. Nicholas Albery, Matthew Mezey, and Peter Ratcliffe (eds.), Social Innovations: A Compendium (London: Institute for Social Innovations), pp. 92-93.
13. Robyn Williams, foreword to Reclaiming Our Cities and Towns, by Engwicht.
14. Application of these concepts to villages in India is developed in detail in Anil Agarwal and Sunita Narain, Towards Green Villages: A Strategy for Environmentally Sound and Participatory Rural Development (New Delhi: Centre for Science & Environment, 1989).
15. Alan Thein Duming and Ed Ayres, "The Story of a Newspaper," World Wttch, November/December 1994, 30-32.
16. Lester R. Brown, Christopher Flavin, and Sandra Postel, Saving the Planet: How to Shape an Environmentally Sustainable Economy (New York: W. W. Norton, 1991), p. 65.
17. Brown, Flavin, and Postel, p. 65.
18. Brown, Flavin, and Postel, p. 68.
19. Brown, Flavin, and Postel, p. 70.
20. Webster's New Warld Dictionary, 2d college ed. (New York: Simon and Schuster 1980), s. v. "job."
21. Webster's New World Dictionary, s. v. "livelihood."
22. The armed forces and defense worker estimates are from UNDP, Human Development Report 1994 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), pp. 47, 60.

23. ПРОБУДИВШИЕСЯ ГРАЖДАНСКОЕ ОБЩЕСТВО

1. "20 Questions," Utne Reader, January - February 1995, 79.
2. Gustavo Esteva, Proceso, February 14, 1994, as quoted in "Chiapas and the Americas," The Nation, March 28, 1994, 404; Neil Harvey, Rebellion in Chiapas: Rural Reforms, Campesino Radicalism, and the Limits to Salinismo, Transformation of Rural Mexico Series no. 5 (San Diego, Calif.: Ejido Reform Research Project, Centerfor U. S.- Mexican Studies, University of California, 1994), p. 1.
3. "Goldman Environmental Prize: The First Five Years" (San Francisco: Goldman Environmental Foundation, n. d.), p. 34.
4. Based on Willis W. Harman, personal communication, September 9, 1993.
5. I can mention here only a few of the millions of examples. The cases cited here are drawn from sources such as Paul Ekins, A New World Order: Grassroots Movements for Global Change (London: Routledge, 1992); Goldman Environmental Prize: The First Five Years (San Francisco: Goldman Environmental Foundation, 1994); nominee lists from the "Wfe the Peoples: 50 Communities Awards" sponsored by the Friends of the United
Nations, 1151 Wellington Crescent, Winnipeg R3N 0A1, Canada, fax (1-204) 487-0149;
Robin Broad and John Cavanagh, Plundering Paradise: The Struggle for the Environmental Movement in the Third World (Wistport, Conn.: Praeger, 1993). Each issue ofThe Ecologist has an excellent center spread on current protest actions around the world. Subscriptions are available from RED Computing, 29A High Street, New Maiden, Surrey, KT3 4BY, United Kingdom; fax (44-81) 942-9385. Reviews of social movements in India are provided by Smity Kothari, "Social Movements and the Redefinition of Democracy," in Philip Oldenberg (ed.), India Briefing (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1993), pp. 131-62; and Smitu Kothari, "Incompatibility of Sustainability and Development: In Search of Social Justice," Journal of Public Administration, July - September 1993, 312-30.
6. Thomas H. Greco Jr., New Money for Healthy Communities (Tucson, Ariz.: Thomas H. Greco Jr., 1994); Edgar Cahn and Jonathan Rowe,Time Dollars (Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press, 1992).
7. These and other network characteristics are discussed in Jessica Lipnack and Jeffrey Stamps, Networking: People Connecting with People, Linking Ideas and Resources (Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, 1982), pp. 222-28.
8. For a rich inventory of resources on the sustainable agriculture movement in the United States, see WHY Magazine, Summer 1993, 24-25.
9. Peter Rachleff, "Seeds of a Labor Resurgency," The Nation, February 21, 1994, 226-29.
10. James L. Tyson, "Young Blacks Get Helping Hand from Chicago Marchers," Christian Science Monitor, May 13, 1994, p. 1.
11. "Hungry," The Economist, July 10, 1993.
12. Further information on Citizenship Action against Misery and for Life is available from IBASE, rua Vicente de Souza, 29-Botafogo, 22251 Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil; fax (55-21) 286-0541.
13. Michael H. Shuman and Hall Harvey, Security without War: A Post-Cold War Foreign Policy (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1993), pp. 90-92; Gloria Duffy "Transformation in the USSR - The Role of Track-Two Diplomacy," Surviving Together, Spring 1993, 3-5; David Ignatius, "Innocence Abroad: The New Wbrld of Spyless Coups, Washington Post, September 22, 1991, Outlook Section.
14. Rachleff, 226-29.
15. Information on these networks is available from IOCU, P. O. Box 1045, 10830 Penang, Malaysia; fax (60-4) 366-506.
16. Jeremy Brecher, John Brown Childs, and Jill Carter, Global Visions: Beyond the New World Order (Boston: South End Press, 1993).
17. Noeleen Heyzer, "Wamen's Development Agenda for the 21st Century: Unifem as a Vehicle of Change for Sustainable Livelihoods and Women's Empowerment" (address by the director, United Nations Development Fund for Wamen, to the Third Committee of the General Assembly of Nations, United Nations, December 1994).
18. The presentation of these examples is inspired by a presentation made by Paul Hawken at The Learning Center in New York City.

24. ПОВЕСТКА ДНЯ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕМЕН

1. Herman E. Daly and John B. Cobb Jr., For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future (Boston: Beacon Press, 1989), p. 174.
2. As cited in Daly and Cobb, p. 209.
3. Paul Hawken, The Ecology of Commerce: A Declaration of Sustainability (New York: Harper Business, 1993), p. 108.
4. Hawken, p. 120.
5. Russell Baker, "The Big Hog Wallow," New York Times, November 1, 1994, p. A27.
6. Bishan Singh, "A Social Economy: The Emerging Scenario for Change," in Tina Liamzon (ed.), Civil Society and Sustainable Livelihoods Warkshop Report (Rome: Society for International Development, 1994), pp. 29-37.
7. Gar Alperovitz, "Ameristroika Is the Answer," Washington Post, December 13, 1992, p.CI.
8. For a partial inventory and assessment of this experience, see Jeff Shavelson, A Third Way: A Sourcebook: Innovations in Community-Owned Enterprise (Washington, D. C.: National Center for Economic Alternatives, 1990).
9. See Richard J. Bamet and John Cavanagh, Global Dreams (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994), p. 416.
10. Herman E. Daly and John B. Cobb Jr., For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future, 2d. Ed. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1994), pp. 414-35.
12. Hawken, p. 163.
13. James Robertson. Benefits and Taxes: A Radical Strategy (London: New Economics Foundation, March 1994), pp. 12-17. A variant of the guaranteed income, a graduated positive income tax, is proposed by Daly and Cobb, For the Common Good (1989), pp. 315-23. These two sources discuss the history of such proposals and the support they have enjoyed from across the political spectrum.
14. Further information is available from Sixto K. Roxas, President, SK.R Managers and Advisors, Inc., No. 59 Hillside Loop, Blueridge A, Quezon City, Philippines; fax (63- 2) 722-5547. See also Sixto K. Roxas, "Strategies for Community Economic and Social Transformation," in Liamzon, pp. 41-47.
15. See Patricia Adams, Odious Debts: Loose Lending, Corruption, and the third World's Environmental Legacy (London: Earthscan, 1991).
16. James Tobin, "A Tax on International Currency Transactions," in UNDP, Human Development Report 1994 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), p. 70.
17. See Tim Lang and Colin Hines, The New Protectionism: Protecting the Future against Free Trade (New York: New Press, 1993), p. 127, for a discussion of positive approaches to protectionism.

ЭПИЛОГ: ВЫБОР В ПОЛЬЗУ ЖИЗНИ

1. "20 Questions," Utne Reader, January - February 1995, 79.
2. "20 Questions," 81.
3. Thomas Berry, The Dream of the Earth (San Francisro: Sierra Club Books, 1988).
4. Duane Elgin, Awakening Earth: Exploring the Evolution of Human Culture and Consciousness (New York: William Morrow, 1993), p. 18.
5. Elgin, p. 312.
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