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А.Н. Дзиговский.   Очерки истории сарматов Карпато-Днепровских земель


The key moments of the Sarmatian history, who lived on the territory to the west from Dnieper, which were reconstructed by us as much as possible, are organically interlaced into the basis of that bright scope events, which took place in the South Russian steppes - from the ruin of the Great Scythia to the Hun’s invasion. The appearing of these Iran language nomads in the researching region, is the consequence of the manyvector process, which represents itself "the next in turn boiling of the eastern caldron", the powerful splash out of which swept practically to the lower courses of Danube.

The west of the steppe Black Sea region is begun to master by the Sarmatians after the rout by them in the beginning of the second thirdx of III century BC or about the middle of this century numerous and prospering barbarian and Hellenistic colonies, which were situated between Tanais and Tiras, including Tavrida, after what, in the Low Podnestrovye, probably, was "get into” some board group of these nomads, which was calling to control the new possessions on their west circumference. The offering thesis, as we see, finds its confirmations among the data of the written, epigraphic and archeological sources.

The isolation of the frontier group of the steppe people and the separation from the main massif of the early Sarmatians, which was in Prikubanye at that time, and else the separate social status of her members led to the forming of the definite standards of the funeral traditions, which were characteristic just for these nomads, what found its reflection in the very specific forms of their tomb constructions and some features of the funeral ritual. From the other side, the isolation of the sarmatian frontier horde, which wandered between Dniester and Dnieper, naturally, wasn't absolute and some definite contacts had place between these nomads and their immediate relatives - Siraci in the east, in Prikubanye and between them and their neighbors, which lived to the west from them, what, in its turn, expressed in the mixing of the set of things, which were used by this population in their custom. As a result, in the sarmatian funeral ceremony and material culture, who lived on the lands to the west from Dnieper in the limits of the second third of III - the middle of II centuries BC formed very original symbiosis, where in equal parts were present the eastern and western influences, which marks out their ancients in specific group of memorials, which is characteristic, mainly, for the researching territory.

In the middle - the second half of II century BC the ethno-political situation on the west of the steppe Black Sea region essentially changes, what was connected both with the strengthening of the late scythian kingdom in Crimea and with the Roxolani appearing on the territory between Don and Dnieper. The repartition of the influence spheres took place, which, finally, led to the leaving frontier, presumably, Siraci horde the researching region, and the territory, which interested us, became controlled by the alliance of Bastarnae, Scythian and Roxolani and the leading role in this alliance played Bastarnae.

Judging by all, Roxolani a long time were faithful to the allied duty, because they didn't hurry to acquaint with the new lands, situated to the west from Dnieper. Their first attempts to penetrate to the North-Western Black Sea region and to the west from it were connected, probably, with the plans of Mithridates VI the Eupator, who marked to invade the Italy by the mainland from Balcans and so they were in the channel of the powerful king's of Pontus police.

From the beginning of the fifties of I century BC considerable influence on the situation in the region, interested us, began to exert the Bueribista’s actions, "who formed a great kingdom and subjected to the Geti's power the main part of neighbor tribes”. By all visibility, mighty screen in face of the tribal confederacy of the Geto-Dacii, which was led by Dacii, essentially corrected the dynamics of the sarmatian penetrating to the west of the steppe.

Black Sea region because the distinct archeological traces of their advancement to this region in the middle of I century BC and right up to the last but one decade of this century wasn't observed. The other categories of sources are silent about this. Else, at this time the slow but accurate Roman's advancement to the lower courses of Danube began.

The Rome's serious intentions to fortify on the Low Danube, though, certainly were taken into account by the Sarmatians, however didn't stop these martial nomads. Close to the very end of I century BC and in the first quarter of I century AD they became very frequent guests in the low part of Danube and the main territory of their living was the Upper and Middle Podnestrovye. These were lazygi, whom brightly and vividly described the Roman poet Ovidiy in his works when he was in exile in Tomi.

The lazygi’s supremacy on the territory to the west from Dnieper continued right up to the middle of I century AD, when here powerful early alanian horde appeared, forced the lazygi to go to the Tissa plain through the passes of the North-Eastern Carpathian mountains and the Upper Potissye. From this time, Alans, which united under their political leadership Roxolani, who also lived in the researching region, and probably Aorsi, became the new masters of this territory, penetrating even on the lands of Moldova behind Prut and probably Dobrudja. They took part in the Roman-Dacian wars of the Trojan's epoch, however, after the first quarter of II century AD, the traces of their staying in the region, interested us, aren’t seen. From this time, the Roxolani began to play the leader's role, their political authority in the Carpatho-Dnestrovye, evidently is kept to the beginning of the "Scythian" or "Goti's" campaigns.

In the second half of III - the first quarter of IV centuries the lands to the west from Dnieper is used by Sarmatians, mainly, as the "transit" territory during their military collisions with Romans, which had place in Roman provinces Mesia and Scythia. In the very end of the third - the beginning of the last quarters of IV century in the west of steppe Black Sea region in the structure of the Hun's horde, Alani-Tanayti appeared for a short time.

It is very curiously, that practically all the sarmatian tribes except lazygi, which chose the lands to the west from Dnieper as the place of their constant living and which played in this region noticeable role, connected by their origin with Saka-Massagetae tribal world. In the different chronological periods these were Siraci, Roxolani and Alani. Their appearing in the region, which interested us, was the consequence of that decisive events of ethno-political character which in the last four centuries Before Christ had place on the territories to the east from Volga.

From our point of view these are the leading plot lines of the history of Sarmatians of the Carpatho-Dnieper lands, the basis for the reconstruction of which, the data of the narrative, epigraphic, numismatic and archeological sources give, though we can't exclude that some of them in future can be filled and with some other contents.
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